Information systems must support the day to day business, as well as the long term, strategic goals of an organisation. The problems for most businesses is that supporting day to day business operations and supporting long term strategic planning require different sets of data and tools.
SQL-1999 introduced object support into the SQL standard. The SQL-1999 standard had to be backward compatible with the existing SQL-1992 standard, so object support was implemented as an extension to the existing standard. The types defined by SQL-1992 were retained, and the standard modified to support user defined types (UDT) with object-like features.
Portability is a very desirable feature in any application which stores information in a database. A software developer would like to use a small in-memory database while developing an application, such as Apache Derby, but deploy the finished application to an Oracle database to make use of it’s scalability and high availability features. In order to do this, both database systems need a certain amount of commonality which the application can use.
ODBC stands for Open DataBase Connectivity. It is a database middleware application which allows an application access data from a database.