Extensible Markup Languages (XML) history begins with the development of Standardised Generalised Markup Language (SGML) by Charles Goldfarb, along with Ed Mosher and Ray Lorie in the 1970s while working at IBM (Anderson, 2004). SGML despite the name is not a mark-up language in it’s own right, but is a language used to specify mark-up languages. The purpose of SGML was to create vocabularies which could be used to mark up documents with structural tags. It was imagined at the time, that certain machine readable documents should remain machine readable for perhaps decades.
Portability is a very desirable feature in any application which stores information in a database. A software developer would like to use a small in-memory database while developing an application, such as Apache Derby, but deploy the finished application to an Oracle database to make use of it’s scalability and high availability features. In order to do this, both database systems need a certain amount of commonality which the application can use.
What is ANSI?
ANSI is the American National Standards Institute and is a non-profit organisation which oversees the development of standards for products, services, processes, systems and personnel in the US. ANSI also coordinates US standards with international standards bodies, so that US products can be used worldwide.
Since the mid 1980s databases have had to learn how to work in a networked environment. This evolution continues with respect to the Internet. We discuss the technologies used by Internet capable databases in this paper. Continue reading →
What is the history of Structured English Query Language and what is its relationship to SQL?
In 1970 Dr. E. F. Codd published his paper,“A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks”. This became the foundation for the relational database system. This paper described a new way to structure data within a database, and led to the relational database systems we use today.
This paper discusses several major achievements in operating systems (OS). We begin by discussing the birth of the operating system with multiprogrammed batch systems. Then we discuss memory management and process management which both of which were required by multiprogrammed batch systems.
During WW2 three independent groups of researchers worked on the development of the first computer, which resulted in the systems Mark 1, COLOSSUS and Z4. This article discusses these computers, their architectures and the driving forces behind them.